There is nothing like the taste of a fresh garden tomato. An organic, homegrown tomato tastes nothing like the one you get at the store.
I think most people know that and in fact, I think that tomatoes bring more people to gardening than any other fruit or vegetable.
Tomatoes are not the easiest to grow, but the effort is totally worth it.
Tomato plants are started indoors. You can do this yourself or you can purchase tomato plants, but you do not want to plant tomato seeds directly in the garden.
I’m going to devote another post to how to start tomato seeds indoors, in this post we will concentrate on how to move the tomato plant into the garden (in other words; how to transplant it).
I start my tomato seeds indoors under lights about six weeks before the last frost which is April 15 here in central NC (you can see my seed germinating room here).
Some people re-pot their tomato plants, meaning they move them to bigger and bigger pots as the seedling grows, but I just leave them in the 4’’x4’’ pot I planted them in and transplant them to the garden a bit early. I use a technique that saves me the re-potting but still helps the plant develop a strong root system.
If you grow your tomato plants yourself, or if you go and purchase tomato plants from a local nursery, you want to make sure the plants have a few true leaves that are big and strong and green and that the stem is at least a pencil size in diameter at the bottom before you transplant the tomato plants into the garden.
Just a note here… You don’t have to transplant your tomato plant to the garden. Tomatoes do great in pots too but they will need a large pot in order for them to produce tomatoes. So if you live in an apartment with a balcony, you can totally place a tomato plant out there but you will have to provide a large pot for it. You will transplant it into the larger pot in the same way we will transplant it into the garden here.
When to Plant Tomatoes?
Tomatoes are very sensitive to cold. Even the lightest frost will damage the plant, it might not kill it but it will definitely set it back considerably. They are a hot weather crop and need the heat to grow and produce.
Never plant tomatoes before the last frost date. If you don’t know your last frost date simply Google it. Where I live, the last frost date is April 15, so I never set my tomatoes outside before this date.
But you have to follow the weather because conditions will probably change from one year to another. For example, we had a night of 33 F on April 19 this year… This is too cold for tomatoes, so I decided to wait a bit longer.
I’d say, you want your day temperature to be somewhere in the mid-seventies and night temperature to be in the mid-fifties pretty consistently before you transplant your tomatoes to the garden. This is from my experience if anyone has a different way of figuring out when to plant tomatoes please share your experience in the comments below.
I know some gardeners check their soil temperature before transplanting. This is a good method too. You simply stick a kitchen thermometer into the soil and read the temperature. Soil temperature should be 60 F or warmer before you transplant your tomato plants.
Where to Plant Tomato Plants?
In large containers or in the garden, whichever you choose, you have to make sure your plant is in full sun, at least 8 hours but preferably 10.
If you grow tall varieties of tomatoes make sure they are not going to shade other plants.
Tomatoes are considered heavy feeders. They love well-drained soil with a pH of about 6.5 like most other garden vegetables and fruit. The more organic matter your soil has the better your tomatoes will look and taste, but even if you prepare your soil well before you transplant your plants into the garden, I would still recommend feeding the plants at least twice during the growing season. To do this organically, I use worm castings and fish emulsion fertilizer.
**You can find all of my favorite garden products HERE.
Tomatoes also suck a lot of calcium from the soil. Even if you planted your tomatoes in soil that you know for sure is a good soil with a pH of 6.5 – 6.8 I still recommend that you add more calcium to avoid any problems with blossom end rot.
Blossom end rot is when your tomato is rotting at its bottom while still on the vine. It’s devastating, really! You see a beautiful tomato and go to pick it only to flip it and see that it’s all rotten.
From my experience, it’s hard to correct this after the plant started producing tomatoes. It’s easier to prevent it by adding calcium at the time of planting. You will see in a minute how simple it is to do this.
So let’s recap… Well-drained soil, rich in organic matter, pH of 6.5. At the time of planting, add calcium to the soil as well as organic plant food. Feed twice more during the growing season.
Do my Tomatoes Need Support?
I say yes every time. I have yet to meet a tomato plant that didn’t benefit from support.
Tomatoes are divided into two groups: Determinate and Indeterminate.
Determinate tomatoes form a bush. A cluster of flowers form at the top of the plant and stops its growth upward. Most of the tomatoes on this bush will ripe at approximately the same time. After a couple of picking the plant will stop producing and can be pulled out of the garden.
Determinate tomatoes are great for processing. You get most of the fruit you need for canning at once, can it, and you are done. You don’t need to collect tomatoes over a period of time until you have enough.
Since the plants are rather short (wider than tall, in other words, bushy) they don’t need a tall cage or a trellis system. They can do just fine with a short cage or even tied to a stake.
Indeterminate tomatoes set fruit clusters along the vining stem all through the growing season until the plants are killed by the first frost.
Those tomatoes can be used for canning and cooking but they are mostly grown for slicing (for sandwiches and such) and for salads.
I am sure that there are gardeners who let their tomatoes crawl on the ground and it might work, especially if you have a good layer of straw mulch under them but I still think that even though it is an investment it’s worth the effort and the cost to set up a good support system for your plants.
Doesn’t matter what you use… cages or stakes or a trellis system, make sure it’s strong enough. You won’t believe how heavy those plants get! And they have very shallow root system so they fall over easily and this can damage the plant, put unnecessary stress on it, and affect production.
How to Plant Tomatoes…
Ok, so you got your tomato plant from the store or you started seeds indoors and the plants are now large enough to be transplanted.
First, let’s harden them. In other words, let’s make sure we get them used to spending time outside before we plant them in the garden.
For the first couple of days, take the plant outside and place it in partial shade for a few hours. Increase the time the plant is spending outside gradually until after about a week it can be left outside the whole time.
Make sure you water it because the small container it is planted in can get dry very quickly.
Before I transplant my tomatoes, I make sure my trellis is ready. It is a design I’ve been using for three years now and works great for me.
Next, gather everything you need;
- Your tomato plants,
- Some worm castings to feed the plant organically (remember tomatoes are heavy feeder),
- Lime (to add calcium to prevent blossom end rot),
- Scissors or clippers to clip the lower leaves,
- and a tool to dig the hole with (you can use a trowel, a shovel, or even a post hole digger. We need to dig a deep hole so make sure you grab something that is comfortable for you to work with.)
So here is my little tomato plant that I started indoors, it is now large enough and it has been going through hardening for about a week.
This is a variety called Matt’s Wild. It is an indeterminate tomato plant that produces a whole lot of clusters of tiny tomatoes. They are smaller than cherry tomatoes, just a little bigger than a large blueberry. We use them as a snack, my kids eat them right off the vine or I pick them and throw them in a salad.
The other two varieties that I’ll grow this year are Cherokee Purple which is the one you saw at the beginning of this post and Amish Paste.
Purple Cherokee (indeterminate) is an amazing tomato for slicing and salads and the Amish Paste (determinant) variety is great for canning.
In order to help the plant develop a strong root system, we are going to clip the lower leaves and plant it deep in the ground. The deeper the better. What will happen is that more roots will grow out of the fuzzy tomato stem that is under the soil and this will help hold the heavy plant as it grows.
Here it is after I clipped the lower leaves. You want to leave just the top leaves on the stem.
Next, dig your hole…
Add half a cup to a cup of compost to the bottom of the hole. I use worm casting that I purchase from Amazon.
Next, add about 3/4 of a cup of lime to the hole. Remember that tomatoes suck a lot of calcium from the soil? Lime is ground sea shells. Adding lime will add calcium to your soil and prevent your tomatoes from developing blossom end rot.
In past years, even though a soil test showed me that I had the correct soil pH to grow tomatoes (6.5 -6.8), I still ended up with blossom end rot. I now add lime at time of planting every season no matter what.
Ground lime (the powder you see above) cost $4 for a 50 lb bag. Well worth it in my opinion. It is not a fast-acting lime but rather will break down over time which is fine here because it will take a few months before my tomato plants will start producing tomatoes.
Instead of lime, you can also use gypsum or Tums, the tablets people take for heartburn. You can simply throw three or four of them in the bottom of the hole. Lime is cheaper, so I use lime.
It is a good idea to collect your eggshells through the year, crumble them and add them to your garden soil. They are full of calcium but don’t break down fast, rather over a long period of time.
Tomatoes are not the only fruit that suffers from blossom end rot. We see this same problem with peppers, eggplants, and melons so I do the same for all of those.
When your hole is ready, hold your plant at its neck and tip the container to release it.
Set the plant in the hole…
And cover it all the way to its top leaves.
Next, make sure you water well. I use drip irrigation in my field but I usually plant right before a rainy day. This way I know that the ground will be soaked well all around the plant and also that it won’t be too hot right after I plant.
Tomatoes need space. Make sure to plant them two feet apart within the row and space the rows at least two feet apart.
You can get my Vegetable Spacing Sheet as part of my Homestead Management Printable Pack when signing up for my monthly newsletter HERE.
Now, this is the most important part… Cover your plants with straw.
This here is the difference between dead plants and live plants, in my experience. You can see that my garden is covered with wood chips but I still use straw when I transplant young plants into my garden.
Even though your plants have been hardened, they still go through a shock when you plant them in the garden. It is called transplanting shock and it’s a very real thing.
This is hard work, my friends. I probably spent three hours building the trellis and on my hands and knees in the field planting all of my seedlings and don’t forget the weeks of growing them indoors, there is nothing more devastating than losing them just a couple of days after transplanting them into the garden.
One bale of straw ($3.75) was enough to cover this whole row of tomato plants (36 plants).
I pretty much cover the whole plant… I leave the top leaves poking out just a bit.
If the sun is too strong, the straw shades the plant and helps it deal with the harsh sun.
If it’s not warm enough the straw insulates and helps protect the plant from the cold (especially at night).
It also keeps the ground moist around the new roots that are still not strong enough to find water on their own.
I think that for the home gardener using straw is pretty much a must when transplanting any plant.
That’s it, we are done. Now, all we have to do is watch the tomato plants grow. As they grow, I prune them and help them climb the string that I will tie from the top rebar of the trellis. In about two months, before they start setting fruit, I will feed them again with fish emulsion and then again about a month later.
There is also pest control and correct harvesting, but we will go over all this in another post.
I hope you get some tomato plants in your garden this year. It might take some work but I don’t think there is any other garden plant that is more worth it!!
Till next week,